auto

auto induce type

auto a = 1
auto it = something.begin()

Header file management

#ifndef SB_H_
#define SB_H_
...
#endif

Initializing Static Variable

#include <cmath> 
int x;  // zero-initialization
int y = 5;  // constant-expression initialization
long z = 13 * 13;   // constant-expression initialization
const double pi = 4.0 * atan(1.0); // dynamic initialization

For constant initialization, it's initialized when complie.

ODR P463

one definition rule There is two kind:

  • defining declaration(definition) - containing storage allocate
double up;
extern int cats = 20;
  • referencing declaration(declaration) - not contain storage allocate
extern int cat; // use extern and has no initialization

Access global variable when shadowing

::warming

Some rule?

You can use an external variable to share data among different parts of a multifile program.You can use a static variable with internal linkage to share data among functions found in just one file.

cv => const and volatile

volatile: compiler sometimes may use cache between context, so using volatile can specify do not using cache, since a variable may be modified by some hardware routine.

namespace

why do we need namespace?

origional global scope => global namespace

namespace is open which means that we can add names to existing namespace. (some like redefine?)

Then it comes how to access namespace: use :: scope-resolution operator

Jack::pair = 12.2;
Jill::Hill mole;
Jack::fetch();

using

  • using declaration => A using declaration adds a particular name to the declarative region in which it occurs.
  • using derective => make the whole(entire) namespace available

For example:

namespace Jill {
  double fetch;
}
char fetch;
int main () {
  using Jill::fetch;  // put fetch into local namespace
  cin >> fetch; // read into Jill::fetch
  cin >> ::fetch; // read into global namespace fetch
}

a using declaration add the name to the local declaration region available to its scope

using namespace std; // make std available in the global scope

using increases the possibility of name conflicts.